Saturday, 20 December 1997

Standardization of Cable TV Network A Review

Harchran Singh and Reema Garg Bureau of Indian Standards New Delhi
Introduction
A large number of Cable TV Networks presently exist in various parts of the country. The growth of such networks has been phenomenal and haphazard. The vigorous growth and acceptance of Cable TV Network has also attracted the attention of regulators and legislators. Government of India had passed ‘Cable TV Network (Regulation) Act’ in 1995. Under this Act, among other things, all Cable TV Network equipment are required to conform to the relevant Indian Standards brought out by BIS, within a period of 3 years from the date of establishment and publication of the relevant Indian Standards. Urgent need was therefore felt to identify areas where standardization was required and also to expeditiously evolve national standards for the same.

Standardization of Cable TV Network A Review

Harchran Singh and Reema Garg Bureau of Indian Standards New Delhi
Introduction
A large number of Cable TV Networks presently exist in various parts of the country. The growth of such networks has been phenomenal and haphazard. The vigorous growth and acceptance of Cable TV Network has also attracted the attention of regulators and legislators. Government of India had passed ‘Cable TV Network (Regulation) Act’ in 1995. Under this Act, among other things, all Cable TV Network equipment are required to conform to the relevant Indian Standards brought out by BIS, within a period of 3 years from the date of establishment and publication of the relevant Indian Standards. Urgent need was therefore felt to identify areas where standardization was required and also to expeditiously evolve national standards for the same.

Sunday, 14 December 1997

Cable TV Hardware Aiming For The Future

Born in 1989-90, Cable TV Industry had not expected the amazing growth which happened the very following year. The mushrooming of cable TV networks in 1989 was only with the SMATV type equipment using ordinary TV boosters and RG 8/ LCG 21 cables for wiring up cable TV households. There were very few indigenous manufacturers in the field. The cause of this restricted growth in the pre-cable TV era was simple: the market was restricted to hotels and high-rise apartments that too in the metropolis. All the modulators were based on VCR modules. The cable operator had a low profile and his network used to cany at the most 100-200 subscribers, two or three channels. And, suddenly there came the boom in the industry due to the Gulf War that was broadcast live on CNN. People from every walk of life lined up in five star hotels to watch the “missiles fired “ till the cable TV operators installed dish antennas and gave them the world in their bedroom.
The number of channels available to Indian viewers increased several fold in the next two years and the situation in the market was beyond the control of the government. Demand in the market was so large that every one in the electronics business got in to manufacture of CATV related goods. Before the boom there were giants like Shyam and MCE dominating the market but later it was taken over by the small-scale industry that brought a crash in prices further escalating the boom.

Cable TV Hardware Aiming For The Future

Born in 1989-90, Cable TV Industry had not expected the amazing growth which happened the very following year. The mushrooming of cable TV networks in 1989 was only with the SMATV type equipment using ordinary TV boosters and RG 8/ LCG 21 cables for wiring up cable TV households. There were very few indigenous manufacturers in the field. The cause of this restricted growth in the pre-cable TV era was simple: the market was restricted to hotels and high-rise apartments that too in the metropolis. All the modulators were based on VCR modules. The cable operator had a low profile and his network used to cany at the most 100-200 subscribers, two or three channels. And, suddenly there came the boom in the industry due to the Gulf War that was broadcast live on CNN. People from every walk of life lined up in five star hotels to watch the “missiles fired “ till the cable TV operators installed dish antennas and gave them the world in their bedroom.

Saturday, 13 December 1997

THE BROADCASTING BILL ITS IMPACT ON THE CABLE TV INDUSTRY

Cable TV in India started with one video channel in 1989 by small entrepreneurs giving a low cost entertainment to the masses including educational and informative programmes. Low cost of this service and variety of programmes made the industry grow to a gigantic size of 18 million households in a short span of “/years. Today we have :
(i.) More than 70,000 cable operators in the country.
(ii.) 18 million cable TV households.
(iii.) More than 50 entertainment, information and educational channels
(iv.) Employment to 12 lakh people.
(v.) Revenue of 2200 crores annually from subscription only.
(vi.) Additional revenue through local advertising, hardware sale, local programming etc.

THE BROADCASTING BILL ITS IMPACT ON THE CABLE TV INDUSTRY

Cable TV in India started with one video channel in 1989 by small entrepreneurs giving a low cost entertainment to the masses including educational and informative programmes. Low cost of this service and variety of programmes made the industry grow to a gigantic size of 18 million households in a short span of “/years. Today we have :

Friday, 14 November 1997

Video-on-demand (VOD): Hot chase to Broad casters

Why feel sorry for missing some scheduled programme?
It looks very pathetic for the parents to put off their wards’ demand for some specific programme on television at odd hours. They do not have any excuse to suit his/her choice. With the advent of “on demand” services a new taste of marketing has evolved. Be it cable Telephony’s fax-on-demand or cable operators Video-on-demand, there is always some choice to make a hole in the broadcaster’s den. Video-on-demand has aroused the familiar mixture of hype and disillusion. The idea of innovation that gave birth to this technology is watching a favourite movie or TV programme when you want to watch rather than when the schedule say-without the need to trek to the video shop.

Video-on-demand (VOD): Hot chase to Broad casters

Why feel sorry for missing some scheduled programme?
It looks very pathetic for the parents to put off their wards’ demand for some specific programme on television at odd hours. They do not have any excuse to suit his/her choice. With the advent of “on demand” services a new taste of marketing has evolved. Be it cable Telephony’s fax-on-demand or cable operators Video-on-demand, there is always some choice to make a hole in the broadcaster’s den. Video-on-demand has aroused the familiar mixture of hype and disillusion. The idea of innovation that gave birth to this technology is watching a favourite movie or TV programme when you want to watch rather than when the schedule say-without the need to trek to the video shop.

Tuesday, 21 October 1997

Cable Telephony: A testament of Confidence

Developments in the Cyber space has some fruitful impact on broadcasting too. As the seriousness towards globalizing communication services accepts a pragmatic face, efforts have been endorsed to retain the facilities of telecommunication in broadcasting too. As a result of these picking and pecking activities, satellite telephony emerged in Telecom Sector and Cable Telephony has made its virtues felt in Cable TV broadcasting arena.
HFC (Hybrid Fibre/Co-ax) network has come out as a tool to materialise the conjunction of video service with telephone services. To have their global market say companies are targeting certain features viz
High quality, reliable telephone service throughout the system. Most advanced small business and residential features

Cable Telephony: A testament of Confidence

Developments in the Cyber space has some fruitful impact on broadcasting too. As the seriousness towards globalizing communication services accepts a pragmatic face, efforts have been endorsed to retain the facilities of telecommunication in broadcasting too. As a result of these picking and pecking activities, satellite telephony emerged in Telecom Sector and Cable Telephony has made its virtues felt in Cable TV broadcasting arena.
HFC (Hybrid Fibre/Co-ax) network has come out as a tool to materialise the conjunction of video service with telephone services. To have their global market say companies are targeting certain features viz

Sunday, 21 September 1997

Justifying the investment and Developing the business case for migration to digital

An digital pay TV services generate sufficient revenues to support the very costly project of installing a fully interactive multimedia broad band infrastructure? Broadly conceived, then the question is a particularly difficult one because what it really asks is; How to make a business case for a short term (five or ten year)?
Investment in a technological development, the commercial consequences of which will likely take a much longer time to be come clear then the time frame in which contemporary investors are accustomed to think much invest less. Since they are intimately connected, before responding to the narrow question, it might be useful to address the broader is sue.

Justifying the investment and Developing the business case for migration to digital

An digital pay TV services generate sufficient revenues to support the very costly project of installing a fully interactive multimedia broad band infrastructure? Broadly conceived, then the question is a particularly difficult one because what it really asks is; How to make a business case for a short term (five or ten year)?

Thursday, 21 August 1997

DTH BANNED-After Effects

Technology Caught in the Crossfire Between Article 19 (1) and 19 (2)
For the last few months Direct-To-Home (DTH) has been the talk of the town, courtesy Rupert Murdoch & Co. led by Mr.R.Basil, a former Director General of Doordarshan. In fact it has become a kind of war between opposing parties. 

Intenational Regulator: Will it be Possible?

IF there can be International Airport Authority to Supervise the air trafficking, In-terpol for international policing. Why cannot we hope to have an International satellite Broadcasting Authority on the same lines?
Globalisation of economy has compacted the distances across the countries in such a way that whole world is a global village. The euphoria has been catalyzed by the technological advances. The provision of satellite-telephony, video-conferencing, hotline, as well as the Internet has made people from deferent parts of the globe live inside a technological home. The evolution of information highway and the global market is expected to generate some sort of internationalisation of thought, culture, tradition technology, education and related in formations. 

Wednesday, 13 August 1997

Aspects of Cable Television in the Broadcasting Bill –1997

Cable Television, an innovation In the Indian context, by hooking up of 26 million Cable TV homes, without any support, financial or moral, from the government of India, became a centre of attraction, from the taxation angle by the Indian Revenue service, by way of levy of all sorts of taxes arbitrarily. Uninformed politicians and bureaucrats view this facility only as Home Cinema’ and cause harassment of the people engaged in this occupation. Down the line, in the enforcement machinery, this industry has been acing the onslaught of corrupt officials, who are semi-literate and as uninformed as their masters.
Upto 1994, satellite reception and its cable casting/from satellites other than IMSAT, was considered illegal by the Govt.. but such systems were installed from Rashtrapati Bhawan clown to residences of Ministers and bureaucrats, at public expenses. Then in 1994, an ordinance was promulgated, which was later christened Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995. The earlier approach of not legalising TVRO (Television Receive Only), i.e. Dish Antenna, had suddenly nose dived when it was realised that this facility was, at the state level, the cheapest option for enhancing Doordarshan’s reach to the 950 million inhabitants. Once legalised, this facility benefited other broadcasters, Indian and foreign, who could deliver variety in the programme menu. Cable TV, as a facility, opened the window to the world, for the poor Indians, at an affordable cost. Later this service was recognized as a small scale industry by the Government, but no financial institution was willing to sanction finance for this orphan. 

Aspects of Cable Television in the Broadcasting Bill –1997

Cable Television, an innovation In the Indian context, by hooking up of 26 million Cable TV homes, without any support, financial or moral, from the government of India, became a centre of attraction, from the taxation angle by the Indian Revenue service, by way of levy of all sorts of taxes arbitrarily. Uninformed politicians and bureaucrats view this facility only as Home Cinema’ and cause harassment of the people engaged in this occupation. Down the line, in the enforcement machinery, this industry has been acing the onslaught of corrupt officials, who are semi-literate and as uninformed as their masters.

Tuesday, 5 August 1997

DTH BANNED-After Effects

Technology Caught in the Crossfire Between Article 19 (1) and 19 (2)
For the last few months Direct-To-Home (DTH) has been the talk of the town, courtesy Rupert Murdoch & Co. led by Mr.R.Basil, a former Director General of Doordarshan. In fact it has become a kind of war between opposing parties. 
But with the government issuing a notification to temporarily ban DTH television, till the bill was passed by Parliament, Star’s dream of launching their DTH services ahead of others has been shattered at least for the time being. R.Basu had been lobbying hard with the government and he had promised Ins bosses in Hong Kong that he would be successful in getting DTH through even before the Broadcast Bill was passed. But according to some Media reports Union Information and Broadcasting Minister Mr.Jaipal Reddy had specifically conveyed to him that there was no chance of clearing DTH licences before the Broadcasting Bill was passed. 
Dubbing the present notification as draconian and direct attack on technology, Star officials said, “The whole exercise has once again proved that the main target is Star Television” 

Monday, 21 July 1997

Regulation: The Necessity

A country’s regulatory philosophy is built on its own unique history and traditions. In India so far we had the experience of state monopoly in the infrastructure development. After 50 years of independence, we are fast moving towards privatisation. However, we have to tread our path very carefully so as not to go off the track in a haste. On the other hand we have to counter the political lethargy in the country. There is a tendency to slow down the matter if there are no personal gains to be made. 
It is unfortunate that the faster we try to develop, the more we get into scams. The best approach is the natural approach that lets the market forces and technology create the right environment for development. Regulations are needed only to compliment tins development. Regulatory structure for broadcasting should include national and state level bodies. National level Authority should handle subjects like frequency spectrum distribution, programming codes, tech-meal standards and guide the state authorities in national policy implementation and subjects like taxation and technical standards. The state level authorities should deal with implementation of various policies in the best interests of the nation and the industry. Implementation should be decentralised to the greatest extent. In a true democracy the general approach to regulating the broadcast and Even if Regulations are essential, it is advisable to form them after due deliberation and considering all aspects for the growth of the industry rather than hurrying them through the Parliament to create history communication industry is

Do We Need BAI at All

Convergence of Telecom Broadcasting and Multitimedia may make the BAI redundant very soon
The Broadcasting Bill 1997 was tabled in the Lok ‘Sabha on 16th May 1997 by S. Jaipal Reddy, Minister to Information and Broadcasting. 

Regulation: The Necessity

A country’s regulatory philosophy is built on its own unique history and traditions. In India so far we had the experience of state monopoly in the infrastructure development. After 50 years of independence, we are fast moving towards privatisation. However, we have to tread our path very carefully so as not to go off the track in a haste. On the other hand we have to counter the political lethargy in the country. There is a tendency to slow down the matter if there are no personal gains to be made. 

Do We Need BAI at All

Convergence of Telecom Broadcasting and Multitimedia may make the BAI redundant very soon
The Broadcasting Bill 1997 was tabled in the Lok ‘Sabha on 16th May 1997 by S. Jaipal Reddy, Minister to Information and Broadcasting. 

Sunday, 13 July 1997

Broadcasting Authority of India

In response to the Supreme directive in the Union of into versus the Cricket Association of Bengal (CAB) case in February 1995 in which airwaves were declared public property and were to be regulated by an independent authority with statutory status; which ultimately prevents monopolies and protects viewers to access a range of services programmes and views, enough emphasis has been given to codify the BAI in the Broadcast To pioneer the cause of listener and viewers against the authority of the broadcasters-be of public or private; the BAI is being constituted.

The Broadcast Bill

It’s impact on and apprehensions of Individual Cable Operators Inderjit Singh The Cabla TV Scenario In India
Cable TV existed in India since nineteen eighties in the form of a single in house video channel in some cities in the West and South. A sudden spurt in spreading of networks came with ( the invasion of Kuwait, when the gulf war was shown live through satellite by CNN in Jan. 1991. At the same time the film distributors started selling Cable TV lights of films on exclusive area basis and created a gold rush of sorts. 

Cross-Media Restrictions, Foreign Investments & Other Licencing Issues

Apprehending the genuineness of print media barons extending their empire in the field of broadcasting too, the Bill restricts cross media holdings. That is to say, those having a say in print media are denied the provisions of having the same say in broadcast media. 
On this issue the Bill lacks clarity of meaning and generates enough hue and cry. Because it will have in its stride a few Indian Industrialists too. Mr. K.K. Birla, an upper house member of Parliament, who happens to be the Chairman of The Hindustan Times group, is unlikely to remain silent. Mr. Birla is a member of the Joint Parliamentary Select Committee. Since his empire extends to Home TV with a 30% stake, it might instigate him to come out of his profile of a gentleman parliamentarian. Then there are others too. 

Cross-Media Restrictions, Foreign Investments & Other Licencing Issues

Apprehending the genuineness of print media barons extending their empire in the field of broadcasting too, the Bill restricts cross media holdings. That is to say, those having a say in print media are denied the provisions of having the same say in broadcast media. 
On this issue the Bill lacks clarity of meaning and generates enough hue and cry. Because it will have in its stride a few Indian Industrialists too. Mr. K.K. Birla, an upper house member of Parliament, who happens to be the Chairman of The Hindustan Times group, is unlikely to remain silent. Mr. Birla is a member of the Joint Parliamentary Select Committee. Since his empire extends to Home TV with a 30% stake, it might instigate him to come out of his profile of a gentleman parliamentarian. Then there are others too. 

Cross-Media Restrictions, Foreign Investments & Other Licencing Issues

Apprehending the genuineness of print media barons extending their empire in the field of broadcasting too, the Bill restricts cross media holdings. That is to say, those having a say in print media are denied the provisions of having the same say in broadcast media. 
On this issue the Bill lacks clarity of meaning and generates enough hue and cry. Because it will have in its stride a few Indian Industrialists too. Mr. K.K. Birla, an upper house member of Parliament, who happens to be the Chairman of The Hindustan Times group, is unlikely to remain silent. Mr. Birla is a member of the Joint Parliamentary Select Committee. Since his empire extends to Home TV with a 30% stake, it might instigate him to come out of his profile of a gentleman parliamentarian. Then there are others too. 

The Broadcast Bill

It’s impact on and apprehensions of Individual Cable Operators
Inderjit Singh
The Cabla TV Scenario In India
Cable TV existed in India since nineteen eighties in the form of a single in house video channel in some cities in the West and South. A sudden spurt in spreading of networks came with ( the invasion of Kuwait, when the gulf war was shown live through satellite by CNN in Jan. 1991. At the same time the film distributors started selling Cable TV lights of films on exclusive area basis and created a gold rush of sorts. 
A broad spectrum of mostly young and adventurous entrepreneurs entered the field. Cable TV networks were erected on first come first serve basis and the area became the jurisdiction of the operator. It was a leap in the dark. Lack of know-how, poor technology level in the country and the issue of film rights became a pandora’s box for the operator specially when competition resulted. Spurious products were sold to him by new manufacturers of co-axial cable and equipment, which did not deliver the promised results and prices charged were exorbitant. 

Broadcasting Authority of India

In response to the Supreme directive in the Union of into versus the Cricket Association of Bengal (CAB) case in February 1995 in which airwaves were declared public property and were to be regulated by an independent authority with statutory status; which ultimately prevents monopolies and protects viewers to access a range of services programmes and views, enough emphasis has been given to codify the BAI in the Broadcast To pioneer the cause of listener and viewers against the authority of the broadcasters-be of public or private; the BAI is being constituted.
As per the seventh schedule of constitution broadcasting is a central subject. Hence it is obligatory the centre to formulate its aces and investigate its pries. Cable Television Network illation) ordinance, 1994 and the Prasar Bharti Act are the subjects governed by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting until now. These provisions serve very little impetus to the vast horizon of pursuits. The management of Radio Frequency Spectrum is dealt by Wireless and Planning Coordination of the Ministry of Communication. The sanctions of these authorities is too little to cast even a shadow of their own.

Tuesday, 20 May 1997

Digital Television Technology New Business Or Product Update?

An assessment of the potential of new markets and business opportunities arising from Digital Technology by Colin J. Knowles of the Australian Broadcasting Authority

Digital Television Technology New Business Or Product Update?

An assessment of the potential of new markets and business opportunities arising from Digital Technology by Colin J. Knowles of the Australian Broadcasting Authority
We live in a world where new opportunities are continually opening, new businesses form to exploit these opportunities and old businesses must adapt or become extinct. Occasionally, radically new knowledge is created which results in a quantum shift in fundamental thinking and technology, which rapidly moves our endeavors to a new plane of activity. Digital signal processing is one of those changes. It has been the catalyst to the convergence of most forms of information dissemination: content creation, production and publishing, newspapers, broadcasting and telecommunications. Digital technology has brought us to the point where there will be few constraints on our capacity to deliver information and entertainment to consumers and the number and types of services available will be determined by commercial returns on investment rather than by channel capacity. Services will be delivered using digital transmission via a variety of means; Satellite, Free-to-Air terrestrial Broadcast in the VHP and UHF Bands, MMDS, and Cable and over time these transmission methods will become more and more specialised and adapted to the types of service delivery for which they are the most efficient. For example, a major sporting event with national interest might be transmitted via satellite, whereas a return of yesterday’s news or a personally selected documentary would be delivered via cable.

Wednesday, 14 May 1997

IS SKY THE LIMIT?

If any single person is to be named as one responsible for the proliferation of satellite channels across transnational boundaries, the unanimous response worldwide would be that of Rupert Murdoch. 
The pace at which Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation has expanded globally has left competitors and observers breathless. He is in a position to not only influence governments but also make them or bring about their downfall. He is referred to by the industry as an international citizen. His loyalty to his organisational interests overrides all other factors. He commands awe among the mighty and powerful, be they politicians, rich industrialists or powerful bankers. 

IS SKY THE LIMIT?

If any single person is to be named as one responsible for the proliferation of satellite channels across transnational boundaries, the unanimous response worldwide would be that of Rupert Murdoch. 
The pace at which Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation has expanded globally has left competitors and observers breathless. He is in a position to not only influence governments but also make them or bring about their downfall. He is referred to by the industry as an international citizen. His loyalty to his organisational interests overrides all other factors. He commands awe among the mighty and powerful, be they politicians, rich industrialists or powerful bankers. 
Murdoch capitalised on the possibilities of rich returns from the electronic media. The super hero has really worked hard in the last four decades to build up an empire that is the envy of many. 

Monday, 21 April 1997

Addressable Cable TV Systems

A Gateway to Pay Televisión
Addressability is the control of the cable subscriber base, such that every user is uniquely identifiable. The diagram shows how levels of control exist within an addressable cable TV system in a hierarchical structure. 

Addressable Cable TV Systems

A Gateway to Pay Televisión
Addressability is the control of the cable subscriber base, such that every user is uniquely identifiable. The diagram shows how levels of control exist within an addressable cable TV system in a hierarchical structure. 
The highest level is the subscriber management system and computer control. This is where the subscriber information is stored and controlled. The data generated by -SMS is then passed to a Conditional Access Module (CA). The CA, which is second level of hierarchy, takes data and assigns it in a conditional manner. The access and security are then applied before encrypted data is passed on. The third level of hierarchy is the encoding unit, where depending on exact set up, upto 128 channels are scrambled. 128 channels are necessary to allow for future developments involving wide bandwidth cable. After the signal encoding, the signals are modulated, combined and distributed in a normal way. It is to be further noted that addressable systems do have an upper user limit, but for most systems, this figure is one million and thus unlikely to be a serious drawback. The number shown on the diagram i.e.16 million implies allowing upto 16 million users, is provided by some professional addressable system manufacturers. 

Sunday, 20 April 1997

Cable Business Upto Date Union Budget 1997-98: Craving for a Clearer Picture

The ‘appease-all’ effort of the finance minister P Chidambaram might have been fully successful, as the Budget-1997-98 has been welcomed by almost every industry segment. Nevertheless, there are some sections in the industry which have been lurking in the dark for want of more enlightenment. Cable TV operating industry is one such example. The announcement of the budget that telecom industry will be considered as a part of the infrastructure has left Cable TV operators guessing into deep waters whether domestic ca©ble industry forms a subsidiary portion of the telecom industry.

Cable Business Upto Date Union Budget 1997-98: Craving for a Clearer Picture

The ‘appease-all’ effort of the finance minister P Chidambaram might have been fully successful, as the Budget-1997-98 has been welcomed by almost every industry segment. Nevertheless, there are some sections in the industry which have been lurking in the dark for want of more enlightenment. Cable TV operating industry is one such example. The announcement of the budget that telecom industry will be considered as a part of the infrastructure has left Cable TV operators guessing into deep waters whether domestic ca©ble industry forms a subsidiary portion of the telecom industry.

Cable Business Upto Date Union Budget 1997-98: Craving for a Clearer Picture

The ‘appease-all’ effort of the finance minister P Chidambaram might have been fully successful, as the Budget-1997-98 has been welcomed by almost every industry segment. Nevertheless, there are some sections in the industry which have been lurking in the dark for want of more enlightenment. Cable TV operating industry is one such example. The announcement of the budget that telecom industry will be considered as a part of the infrastructure has left Cable TV operators guessing into deep waters whether domestic ca©ble industry forms a subsidiary portion of the telecom industry.
The issue has assumed enlarged dimensions especially in the backdrop of government announcement that all the concessions and incentives available to infrastructure sector companies will be given to those operating in the telecom sector. The issue of assign ability of telecom licenses has also been resolved by a tripartite agreement among Department of Telecommuni-cation, Licensee and the lending institutions who fund the project. The rules also provide for the transfer of license to the third party should there be any default in the payment to financial institution funding the project. However, this would be done only by taking the advise from the DoT. Conforming to the clause of force majeure, private operator would not be liable to pay any penalty to DoT, if they fail to abide by the promises on account of natural calamities.

Sunday, 13 April 1997

Grave Ramifications of the Broadcast Bill

In recent history, no other business visitor to India has attracted more attention than the whistle-stop tour of the world’s richest man -Bill Gates. Our country’s corporate titans hung onto every word of his, drinking it in like gospel truths, with emotion bordering mass hysteria. 
If one had to express his entire presentations in a single word - then it is CONVERGENCE. The theme for the future is that it there will be just one cable entering every home. And this solitary wire would carry just about everything under the sun, and probably the moon as well, covering satellite television, video teleconferencing, Internet access, teletext, teleshopping, interactive TV etc. 

Broadcasting It’s Future in India

Having embraced the mantra of liberalization six years ago, India is, today, integrating with the new borderless global economy. The economic liberalization has been greatly aided and accelerated by the media liberalization. In fact, the two are totally complimentary.
Over the last four years, there has been a cataclysmic change in the broadcast industry. From the monopolistic days of Doordarshan, today, India has over 30 channels. India is the home to the world’s fastest growing Television, Cable & Satellite market. India has more than 250 million TV viewers with the base of 55 million TV homes. In just four years time, it has a Cable and Satellite distribution infrastructure reaching out to 18 million homes with a penetration of 35%.

Broadcasting It’s Future in India

Having embraced the mantra of liberalization six years ago, India is, today, integrating with the new borderless global economy. The economic liberalization has been greatly aided and accelerated by the media liberalization. In fact, the two are totally complimentary.
Over the last four years, there has been a cataclysmic change in the broadcast industry. From the monopolistic days of Doordarshan, today, India has over 30 channels. India is the home to the world’s fastest growing Television, Cable & Satellite market. India has more than 250 million TV viewers with the base of 55 million TV homes. In just four years time, it has a Cable and Satellite distribution infrastructure reaching out to 18 million homes with a penetration of 35%.

Grave Ramifications of the Broadcast Bill

In recent history, no other business visitor to India has attracted more attention than the whistle-stop tour of the world’s richest man -Bill Gates. Our country’s corporate titans hung onto every word of his, drinking it in like gospel truths, with emotion bordering mass hysteria. 
If one had to express his entire presentations in a single word - then it is CONVERGENCE. The theme for the future is that it there will be just one cable entering every home. And this solitary wire would carry just about everything under the sun, and probably the moon as well, covering satellite television, video teleconferencing, Internet access, teletext, teleshopping, interactive TV etc. 

Friday, 21 March 1997

NEW SKIRMISHES IN THE SKY DIRECT TO HOME – A TOUGH CLIMB AHEAD

Breakneck technological changes are threatening to make the already small global village into global ‘mohalla’. New discoveries are being made even before yesterday’s ‘latest’ discovery is yet to be implemented. Such is the case with the new-fangled DTH, which could be occluded by reportedly superior Ka-band. 
Meanwhile, the kneejerk reactions that our government is prone to making in face of advancing technology, seem to be replicating over the issue of DTH also and the final could well end up becoming very indirect. 

NEW SKIRMISHES IN THE SKY DIRECT TO HOME – A TOUGH CLIMB AHEAD

Breakneck technological changes are threatening to make the already small global village into global ‘mohalla’. New discoveries are being made even before yesterday’s ‘latest’ discovery is yet to be implemented. Such is the case with the new-fangled DTH, which could be occluded by reportedly superior Ka-band. 
Meanwhile, the kneejerk reactions that our government is prone to making in face of advancing technology, seem to be replicating over the issue of DTH also and the final could well end up becoming very indirect. 
Direct-To-Home (DTH) is a delivery system whereby digitally impressed channels can be sent through high-powered signals through Ku-band transponders directly to subscriber’s homes. The subscriber is in a position to access the channels if he is equipped with a small but powerful dish antenna and a decoder, which can unscramble the signals. DTH enables viewers to receive super quality picture and sound. 

Thursday, 20 March 1997

PROGRAMMING CHALLENGES

With an increasing number of channels available to Indian audience, the job of Channels managers to build, retain and increase its share of audience is becoming increasingly tougher. The proliferation of Channels -both audience-specific (Children Cartoon) and subject-specific (Sports, Movies) has meant the fragmentation of the already fragmented audience, this makes the task of how-to-get audience, particularly difficult one for television institutions. Because it is a mass audience, the audience tastes are so diffused and so general that you have got to be guessing. You can work off precedents about what’s worked on television before. You can work off whatever smattering sociological information you gleaned from whatever sources. You can let your personal judgments enter into it to some extent - But you never really know. There is no wav to know in advance whether the audience will tune in and stay tuned. The only option available to Channel Managers is to devise risk-reducing strategies. One such strategy is to customise.

PROGRAMMING CHALLENGES

With an increasing number of channels available to Indian audience, the job of Channels managers to build, retain and increase its share of audience is becoming increasingly tougher. The proliferation of Channels -both audience-specific (Children Cartoon) and subject-specific (Sports, Movies) has meant the fragmentation of the already fragmented audience, this makes the task of how-to-get audience, particularly difficult one for television institutions. Because it is a mass audience, the audience tastes are so diffused and so general that you have got to be guessing. You can work off precedents about what’s worked on television before. You can work off whatever smattering sociological information you gleaned from whatever sources. You can let your personal judgments enter into it to some extent - But you never really know. There is no wav to know in advance whether the audience will tune in and stay tuned. The only option available to Channel Managers is to devise risk-reducing strategies. One such strategy is to customise.

PROGRAMMING CHALLENGES

With an increasing number of channels available to Indian audience, the job of Channels managers to build, retain and increase its share of audience is becoming increasingly tougher. The proliferation of Channels -both audience-specific (Children Cartoon) and subject-specific (Sports, Movies) has meant the fragmentation of the already fragmented audience, this makes the task of how-to-get audience, particularly difficult one for television institutions. Because it is a mass audience, the audience tastes are so diffused and so general that you have got to be guessing. You can work off precedents about what’s worked on television before. You can work off whatever smattering sociological information you gleaned from whatever sources. You can let your personal judgments enter into it to some extent - But you never really know. There is no wav to know in advance whether the audience will tune in and stay tuned. The only option available to Channel Managers is to devise risk-reducing strategies. One such strategy is to customise.

Friday, 14 March 1997

Technology Advance in Post-Production & Broadcast

Abstract
This article will discuss the recent technology advances in the areas of compression, disk technologies and associated RAID technologies, editing systems and the impact on the post-production and broadcast markets. It will also dwell on the shifts being seen in the video industry from analog to digital, from analog tape to digital tape, from tape to disk and digital tape formats. Recent advances in the areas of compression, with special emphasis on the brand new MPEG2 professional 4:2:2 profile, and its impact to the news, broadcast, archival and the post-production markets will be discussed. As more and more computer systems are being used in the video industry, the challenge to transport this video information faster (than real time) from one system to another becomes apparent. The various network topologies and technologies such as ATM, FDDI,Fibre Channel, SDH etc., will be positioned.

Technology Advance in Post-Production & Broadcast

Abstract
This article will discuss the recent technology advances in the areas of compression, disk technologies and associated RAID technologies, editing systems and the impact on the post-production and broadcast markets. It will also dwell on the shifts being seen in the video industry from analog to digital, from analog tape to digital tape, from tape to disk and digital tape formats. Recent advances in the areas of compression, with special emphasis on the brand new MPEG2 professional 4:2:2 profile, and its impact to the news, broadcast, archival and the post-production markets will be discussed. As more and more computer systems are being used in the video industry, the challenge to transport this video information faster (than real time) from one system to another becomes apparent. The various network topologies and technologies such as ATM, FDDI,Fibre Channel, SDH etc., will be positioned.

Thursday, 13 March 1997

PROPOSED BROADCAST BILL

Addressing a delegation of the Cable Operators Federation of India led by Mrs. Roop Sharma on Feb. 13, 1997, the Union 1 & B Minister Mr. C.M. Ibrahim declared that “ The Broadcast Bill will play an important role in regulating the industry by minimising if not eliminating confusion and chaos caused by unregulated growth”. He however agreed with COFI’s demand that “Cable Operators should be heard and consulted prior to the formulation of the proposed legislation.” The meeting was also attended by Mr. N.P. Nawani I & B Secretary and Mr. K.S. Sarma, Director General, Doordarshan.

Tuesday, 11 March 1997

PROPOSED BROADCAST BILL

Addressing a delegation of the Cable Operators Federation of India led by Mrs. Roop Sharma on Feb. 13, 1997, the Union 1 & B Minister Mr. C.M. Ibrahim declared that “ The Broadcast Bill will play an important role in regulating the industry by minimising if not eliminating confusion and chaos caused by unregulated growth”. He however agreed with COFI’s demand that “Cable Operators should be heard and consulted prior to the formulation of the proposed legislation.” The meeting was also attended by Mr. N.P. Nawani I & B Secretary and Mr. K.S. Sarma, Director General, Doordarshan.
In this age of information explosion, one aspect that is being debated most hotly is the imminent presentation of the proposed Indian Broadcasting Bill before the Indian Parliament during its ongoing budget session. The public opinion in the country is sharply divided over the issue. While one segment is vehemently against any sort of concessions to foreign broadcasters, there is another that favours their presence citing freedom of expression enshrined under article 19(2) of the Indian constitution in support of their arguments. 

Friday, 21 February 1997

DTH SERVICES IN A PERPLEXED SITUATION

DTH services were announced last year with much fanfare but are a non-starter till date due to the confused state of mind of our government. Earlier Doordarshan wanted to take the advantage of this direct to home technology but gave upto after the command was shifted to a new incumbent. All of a sudden it dawned on the authorities that DTH was only for a few and did not fulfill the social objectives of the National Broadcaster. No regulations existed in India that could harm DTH. Taking advantage of the situation and to have the benefit of being the first with their experience in heralding satellite revolution in India, Star TV announced its DTH plans. Hardly had their full-page advertisement appeared in the newspapers that the alarm bells started ringing in the government quarters announcing an apprehension of a similar chaos originating in the skies as it happened on the ground in the case of Cable TV.

DTH SERVICES IN A PERPLEXED SITUATION

DTH services were announced last year with much fanfare but are a non-starter till date due to the confused state of mind of our government. Earlier Doordarshan wanted to take the advantage of this direct to home technology but gave upto after the command was shifted to a new incumbent. All of a sudden it dawned on the authorities that DTH was only for a few and did not fulfill the social objectives of the National Broadcaster. No regulations existed in India that could harm DTH. Taking advantage of the situation and to have the benefit of being the first with their experience in heralding satellite revolution in India, Star TV announced its DTH plans. Hardly had their full-page advertisement appeared in the newspapers that the alarm bells started ringing in the government quarters announcing an apprehension of a similar chaos originating in the skies as it happened on the ground in the case of Cable TV.

Tuesday, 21 January 1997

DTH The Green Light Is On

First came the channel boom. The skies became overcrowded as more and more transnational broadcasters directed their operations towards this region. Initially all the channels were free-to-air but with the mushrooming of channels and the comparatively low growth of advertising on which the channels were solely dependent forced the broadcasters to go ‘pay’. Making Indian viewers pay for viewing programmes did not prove to be an easy task. As a result pay channels are still struggling to gain a foothold in the country although they have been there since two years. 
Against this backdrop India is standing at the threshold of yet another revolution in the cable and satellite industry, the DTH revolution. Direct-to-home television or as it is popularly called DTH has become the most talked about topic in the country today. 

DTH The Green Light Is On

First came the channel boom. The skies became overcrowded as more and more transnational broadcasters directed their operations towards this region. Initially all the channels were free-to-air but with the mushrooming of channels and the comparatively low growth of advertising on which the channels were solely dependent forced the broadcasters to go ‘pay’. Making Indian viewers pay for viewing programmes did not prove to be an easy task. As a result pay channels are still struggling to gain a foothold in the country although they have been there since two years. 
Against this backdrop India is standing at the threshold of yet another revolution in the cable and satellite industry, the DTH revolution. Direct-to-home television or as it is popularly called DTH has become the most talked about topic in the country today. 

DTH The Green Light Is On

First came the channel boom. The skies became overcrowded as more and more transnational broadcasters directed their operations towards this region. Initially all the channels were free-to-air but with the mushrooming of channels and the comparatively low growth of advertising on which the channels were solely dependent forced the broadcasters to go ‘pay’. Making Indian viewers pay for viewing programmes did not prove to be an easy task. As a result pay channels are still struggling to gain a foothold in the country although they have been there since two years. 
Against this backdrop India is standing at the threshold of yet another revolution in the cable and satellite industry, the DTH revolution. Direct-to-home television or as it is popularly called DTH has become the most talked about topic in the country today. 

Tuesday, 14 January 1997

THE WAVE OF THE NEXT GENERATION

The boundaries between the entertainment media and communication enterprises are fast breaking down and future shifts in frequency reuse are already on the anvil. The task today is one of the how to move away from “one-to-many” broadcasting to accommodate narrow casting and interactivity for individual households. In this process the core of convergence of communications technologies is ease and extent of reach and access, range and reliability of value added services and of course speed and reduced tariffs of communication flows. Ultimately however, the relevance is in the contents and not in the means of delivery. On these aspects depend both scope and significance of convergence. 

THE WAVE OF THE NEXT GENERATION


Source: http://cablequest.org/articles/broadcast-technology/item/1304-the-wave-of-the-next-generation.html

Source: http://cablequest.org/articles/broadcast-technology/item/1304-the-wave-of-the-next-generation.htmlThe boundaries between the entertainment media and communication enterprises are fast breaking down and future shifts in frequency reuse are already on the anvil. The task today is one of the how to move away from “one-to-many” broadcasting to accommodate narrow casting and interactivity for individual households. In this process the core of convergence of communications technologies is ease and extent of reach and access, range and reliability of value added services and of course speed and reduced tariffs of communication flows. Ultimately however, the relevance is in the contents and not in the means of delivery. On these aspects depend both scope and significance of convergence. 
Once barriers for channeling broadcasting and telecommunication on a single network are removed, convergence becomes commercially viable. That, direc TV in USA now hopes to increase its subscriber base ten fold by year 2000 aligning with AT&T, is a good example. As if realising all this, the Telecom Commission in India has been of late exploring the possibility of interaction between telephone and cable TV. MTNL is even working out a proposal for use of cable networks to carry voice and data services. Rightly, the Commission is expected to come up with plans to facilitate such a process.